At-Risk Populations for Tuberculosis

People at high risk for Tuberculosis (TB) exposure and infection include:

  • Close contacts of persons exposed to contagious cases of TB
  • Foreign-born persons, including children, who have immigrated within the last 5 years from areas that have a high TB incidence
  • Residents and employees of high-risk congregate settings (prisons, nursing homes, homeless shelters, drug treatment facilities, and healthcare facilities)
  • Healthcare workers who serve high-risk clients
  • Some medically underserved, low-income populations as defined locally
  • High-risk racial or ethnic minority populations defined locally as having an increased prevalence of TB
  • Infants, children, and adolescents exposed to adults in high-risk categories
  • Persons who inject illicit drugs or any other locally identified high-risk substance users

People at high risk for progression to TB disease once infected include:

  • Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • Persons who were infected with M. tuberculosis within the past 2 years, particularly infants and very young children
  • Persons who have underlying medical conditions known to increase the risk of progression to active disease
  • Persons who inject illicit drugs
  • Persons with a past history of inadequately treated TB